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    Duisburg 1960

    duisburg 1960

    Febr. Heute gilt der Duisburger Norden als sozialer Brennpunkt. In den ern war das noch anders. Einen kleinen Eindruck der damaligen Zeit. Dieser Artikel bietet einen Überblick über die Geschichte der Stadt Duisburg. .. Düsseldorf et Duisburg; Genève ; Wilhelm Meyer-Markau, Heimatluft. Dieser Artikel bietet einen Überblick über die Geschichte der Stadt Duisburg. .. Düsseldorf et Duisburg; Genève ; Wilhelm Meyer-Markau, Heimatluft.

    However, from the 14th century onwards, the city council increasingly grew in importance. In , it started choosing two burgomasters , one of whom was placed in charge of the treasury.

    In , Essen was granted imperial immediacy [30] but had to abandon this privilege later on. Between the early 15th and 20th centuries, the political system of Essen underwent several changes, most importantly the introduction of the Protestant Reformation in , the annexation of by Prussia , and the subsequent secularization of the principality in The territory was made part of the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from to , after which it became part of the Prussian Rhine Province until its dissolution in In they founded the Communist Workers' International.

    Essen became one of the centres of resistance to Social Democracy and the Freikorps alike. During the Nazi era — , mayors were installed by the Nazi Party.

    After World War II , the military government of the British occupation zone installed a new mayor and a municipal constitution modeled on that of British cities.

    Later, the city council was again elected by the population. The mayor was elected by the council as its head and as the city's main representative.

    The administration was led by a full-time Oberstadtdirektor. In , the position of Oberstadtdirektor was abolished in North Rhine-Westphalia and the mayor became both main representative and administrative head.

    In addition, the population now elects the mayor directly. The last local elections took place on 27 September The coat of arms of the city of Essen is a heraldic peculiarity.

    Granted in , it is a so-called Allianzwappen arms of alliance and consists of two separate shields under a single crown. Most other coats of arms of cities show a wall instead of a crown.

    The crown, however, does not refer to the city of Essen itself, but instead to the secularized ecclesiastical principality of Essen under the reign of the princess-abbesses.

    The dexter heraldically right escutcheon shows the double-headed Imperial Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire , granted to the city in The sinister heraldically left escutcheon is one of the oldest emblems of Essen and shows a sword that people believed was used to behead the city's patron Saints Cosmas and Damian.

    People tend to connect the sword in the left shield with one found in the Cathedral Treasury. This sword, however, is much more recent.

    Essen is twinned with: There are cooperations with the following cities: Essen hosts parts of the corporate headquarters of Schenker AG , the logistics division of Deutsche Bahn.

    The Coca-Cola Company had originally established their German headquarters in Essen around , where it remained until , when it was moved to the capital Berlin.

    In light of the Energy transition in Germany , Germany's largest electric utility E. ON announced that, after restructuring and splitting off its conventional electricity generation division coal, gas, atomic energy , it will move its headquarters to Essen in , becoming a sole provider of renewable energy.

    The city's exhibition centre, Messe Essen , hosts some 50 trade fairs each year. It has been described as "the showcase event of the year for the tuning community" [38] and as the German version of the annual SEMA auto show in Las Vegas.

    Important fairs restricted to professionals include "Security" security and fire protection , IPM gardening and E-World energy and water. The Westdeutscher Rundfunk has a studio in Essen, which is responsible for the central Ruhr area.

    Each day, it produces a minute regional evening news magazine called Lokalzeit Ruhr , a 5-minute afternoon news programme, and several radio news programmes.

    A local broadcasting station went on air in the late s. In Essen, the WAZ Group also publishes the local Borbecker Nachrichten at times Germany's largest local newspaper [ citation needed ] and Werdener Nachrichten , both of which had been independent weekly newspapers for parts of Essen.

    Additionally, Axel Springer run a printing facility for their boulevard-style daily paper Bild in Essen. One renowned educational institution in Essen is the Folkwang University , a university of the arts founded in , which is headquartered in Essen and has additional facilities in Duisburg, Bochum and Dortmund.

    In the institution began offering graduate studies and was renamed Folkwang University of the Arts. This coincided with Ruhr.

    Folkwang University of the Arts. The University of Duisburg-Essen , which resulted from a merger of the universities of Essen and Duisburg, is one of Germany's "youngest" universities with about 42, Students.

    Other fields include nanotechnology , discrete mathematics and "education in the 21st century". Another university in Essen is the private Fachhochschule für Ökonomie und Management , a university of applied sciences with over 6, students and branches in 15 other major cities throughout Germany.

    Essen offers a highly diversified health care system with more than 1, resident doctors and almost 6, beds in 13 hospitals, including a university hospital.

    The university hospital dates back to , when the city council established a municipal hospital; although it was largely destroyed during World War II , it was later rebuilt, and finally gained the title of a university hospital in It focuses on diseases of the circulatory system West German Heart Centre Essen , oncology and transplantation medicine , with the department of bone marrow transplantation being the second-largest of its kind in the world.

    Three Autobahnen touch Essen territory, most importantly the Ruhrschnellweg Ruhr expressway, A 40 , which runs directly through the city, dividing it roughly in half.

    In a west-eastern direction, the A 40 connects the Dutch city of Venlo with Dortmund, running through the whole Ruhr area.

    In the north, the A 42 briefly touches Essen territory, serving as an interconnection between the neighboring cities of Oberhausen and Gelsenkirchen and destinations beyond.

    A segment of the A 52 connects Essen with the more southern region around Düsseldorf. On Essen territory, the A 52 runs from the southern boroughs near Mülheim an der Ruhr past the fairground and then merges with the Ruhrschnellweg at the Autobahndreieck Essen-Ost junction east of the city centre.

    An extension of the A 52 to connect the Essen-Ost junction with the A 42 to close this gap is considered urgent; [44] it has been planned for years but not yet been realized — most importantly due to the high-density areas this extension would lead through, resulting in high costs and concerns with the citizens.

    As with most communes in the Ruhr area, local transport is carried out by a local, publicly owned company for transport within the city, the DB Regio subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn for regional transport and Deutsche Bahn itself for long-distance journeys.

    The local carrier, Ruhrbahn, is a member of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr VRR association of public transport companies in the Ruhr area, which provides a uniform fare structure in the whole region.

    The U-Stadtbahn, which partly runs on used Docklands Light Railway stock, is a mixture of tram and full underground systems with 20 underground stations for the U-Stadtbahn and additional 4 underground stations used by the tram.

    Two lines of the U-Stadtbahn are completely intersection-free and hence independent from other traffic, and the U18 line leading from Mülheim main station to the Bismarckplatz station at the gates of the city centre partly runs above ground amidst the A 40 motorway.

    Essen Hauptbahnhof Main Station. Essen Hauptbahnhof in the city centre. On the same motorway, a long-term test of a guided bus system is being held since Many Ruhrbahn rail lines meet at the main station but only a handful of bus lines.

    All Ruhrbahn lines, including the Nacht Express lines, are closed on weekdays from 1: Of the Rhein-Ruhr S-Bahn net's 13 lines, 5 lines lead through Essen territory and meet at the Essen Hauptbahnhof main station, which also serves as the connection to the Regional-Express and Intercity-Express network of regional and nationwide high-speed trains, respectively.

    Further 20 S-Bahn stations can be found in the whole urban area. All vehicles and staff were merged and are now operated together.

    While the first flights had already arrived in , it was officially opened on 25 August It was heavily damaged during the war, yet partly reconstructed and used by the Allies as a secondary airport since visibility is less often obscured than at Düsseldorf Airport.

    For decades, the coal mine current form mainly from , closed in and the coking plant closed in ranked among the largest of their kinds in Europe. Shaft XII, built in Bauhaus style, with its characteristic winding tower, which over the years has become a symbol for the whole Ruhr area, is considered an architectural and technical masterpiece, earning it a reputation as the "most beautiful coal mine in the world".

    Under the direction of an agency borne by the land of North Rhine-Westphalia and the city itself, several arts and design institutions settled mainly on the grounds of the former coal mine; a redevelopment plan for the coking plant is to be realised.

    The Ruhrmuseum , a museum dedicated to the history of the Ruhr area, which had been existing since , opened its gates as one of the anchor attractions in the former coal-washing facility in The former collegiate church of Essen Abbey and nowadays cathedral of the Bishop of Essen is a Gothic hall church made from light sandstone.

    The first church on the premises dates back to between and ; the current church was constructed after a former church had burnt down in However, the important westwork and crypt have survived from Ottonian times.

    The cathedral is located in the centre of the city which evolved around it. It is not spectacular in appearance and the adjacent church St.

    Johann Baptist , which is located directly within the pedestrian precinct, is often mistakenly referred to as the cathedral.

    The cathedral treasury, however, ranks amongst the most important in Germany since only few art works have been lost over the centuries.

    The most precious exhibit, located within the cathedral, is the Golden Madonna of Essen around , the oldest known sculpture of the Madonna and the oldest free-standing sculpture north of the Alps.

    Other exhibits include the alleged child crown of Emperor Otto III , the eldest preserved seven-branched Christian candelabrum and several other art works from Ottonian times.

    Golden Madonna of Essen. Cross of Otto and Mathilde , 10th century. Opened in , the then-New Synagogue served as the central meeting place of Essen's pre-war Jewish community.

    The building ranks as one of the largest and most impressive testimonies of Jewish culture in pre- war Germany. In post-war Germany, the former house of worship was bought by the city, used as an exhibition hall and later rededicated as a cultural meeting centre and house of Jewish culture.

    The city's land register solely lists the property, which at times had a staff of up to people, as a single-family home.

    The mansion's central clock became the reference clock for the whole Krupp enterprise; every clock was to be set with a maximum difference of half a minute.

    It even acquired its own railway station , Essen Hügel , which is still a regular stop. The Krupp family had to leave the Gründerzeit mansion in , when it was annexed by the allies.

    Given back in , Villa Hügel is now seat of the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation major shareholder of Thyssen-Krupp and was opened for concerts and sporadic yet high-profile exhibitions.

    In the south of the city, the boroughs of Kettwig and Werden exceptionally stand for towns once of their own, which have been annexed in Werden and Kettwig , respectively, and which have largely preserved their pre-annexation character.

    While most of the northern boroughs were heavily damaged during the Second World War and often lost their historic town centres; the more southern parts got off more lightly.

    Ludger founded Werden Abbey around , 45 years before St. Altfrid founded the later cornerstone of the modern city, Essen Abbey.

    The old church of Werden abbey, St. Ludgerus , was designated a papal basilica minor in , while the main building of the former abbey today is the headquarters of the Folkwang University of music and performing arts.

    Kettwig, which was annexed in , much to the dismay of the population that still struggles for independence, [50] was mainly shaped by the textile industry.

    The most southern borough of Essen is also the city's largest with regard to area and presumably greenest. Grugapark , Kranichwiese facing the Orangerie and the sculpture Orion.

    Grugapark, Sculpture "Trauer" by Joseph Enseling. The city of Essen has been awarding honorary citizenships since but has coincidentally discontinued this tradition after the foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany in A notable exception was made in , when Berthold Beitz, the president of the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation received honorary citizenship for his long lasting commitment to the city.

    Today, the highest award of the city is the Ring of Honour , which Berthold Beitz, for example, had already received in Stadion Essen , its home stadium, is located in the north of Essen.

    The team is one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and has attempted to move up to Germany's elite league Basketball Bundesliga.

    The Baskets play their home games at the Sportpark am Hallo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Essen, Germany.

    For other uses, see Essen disambiguation. Location of Essen within North Rhine-Westphalia. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.

    ThyssenKrupp headquarters in Essen. RWE AG headquarters in the business district. Essen Stadtbahn tram station.

    Commuter train to Duisburg. Retrieved 12 May Das sind Deutschlands grünste Städte". Retrieved 12 May — via Sueddeutsche.

    Archived from the original on Retrieved 6 April A small chapel formed part of the building by the main gate that also housed the Guardroom and its associated cells.

    Due to Rhine bridge restrictions the largest vessels that could sail so far inland were small mine sweepers and other coastal protection craft, so their ships captains were fairly junior in rank.

    I have mentioned the Wedau sailing lake and the extensive woodland thereabouts. Dog walkers from the married quarters were always hoping that their dogs might find this valuable baton!

    Nowhere to swerve to in safety! But one soon learnt where to keep a very watchful eye out for them! Outside the barracks entrance was an important crossroads, controlled by traffic lights.

    We would deploy our regimental policemen as traffic cops to start sorting out the chaos before the German police arrived. Germans living in a nearby suburb had a charitable society that, once a year, would storm the main gate whilst dressed up in garish jester like costumes.

    But it did further promote Anglo-German relations! So they moved away where to? Well the pollution from the steelworks chimneys was terrible, often a yellow haze persisted all day.

    The pollution did suddenly improve however when the German Government started making the steelworks bosses personally culpable for their poisoned concoctions and threatening them with prison sentences and not just fines!

    We were colocated with, but not a part of, 3 ADTR. That didn't cause much rivalry! Your pictures of the barracks brought back many, many memories, particularly the ones of what you call Block 19 which look very like 6 Sqn's and my Troop's vehicle lines.

    They were originally garages for 88mm guns and their Sdkfz7 tractors they still had the Luftwaffe registration numbers on the walls and they weren't big enough for our ancient AEC Militant Mk1 10 tonners.

    So, all of our task vehicles sat outside on the park in front and we used the garages as offices and for our 4 tonners, Land Rovers and stores. I do have a couple of pictures of the barracks somewhere and I'll try and dig them out.

    The barracks has now sadly been demolished but the superb Officers' Mess is still in existence opposite the barracks on the other side of Route 8.

    The rather dodgy 'Annex' where I lived has been converted into a conference centre but the main part of what was a Luftwaffe Mess dripping with history still remains.

    I have so many good memories of serving there - particularly of walking across Route 8 at 6 o'clock in the evening in No 1 Dress Blues to mount the Guard as Duty Officer.

    The traffic used to stop and everyone would give you abuse for looking like an SS officer. It was as much as I could do to stop myself drawing my sword and calling out the Guard!

    Bomb explosions rocked a British Army barracks in West Germany early today, slightly wounding nine soldiers, the army said. Gunmen believed to be the attackers opened fire on police officers while escaping, the police reported.

    In a statement from Dublin, the Irish Republican Army took responsibility for the bombing. There was no indication whether the attack was intended specifically as a reprisal for recent British strikes against Irish Republican Army targets outside Britain, notably the killing of three suspected guerrillas in Gibraltar last March.

    It was the first reported assault against the 56, uniformed British servicemen based in West Germany since three off-duty soldiers were killed during weekend leave in the Netherlands on May 1.

    The Irish Republican Army said its guerrillas carried out that attack. On May 3, a car bomb found near another British base in West Germany was defused before it could explode.

    The British Army said two bombs weighing around 20 pounds each tore a hole 9 by 15 feet in the barracks today and blew off part of the roof.

    About 50 soldiers were sleeping in the barracks at the time, and injuries were caused mainly by flying glass from broken windows.

    None of the wounded were hospitalized, the army said. The explosion sent debris flying around the barracks and shattered windows of nearby factories.

    The barracks houses soldiers from the Royal Corps of Transport. Speeding Car Evades Police The police said the attackers had apparently cut their way through a steel fence surrounding the building and placed the bombs next to an outer wall while a getaway car awaited them.

    Shortly after the explosion, a West German police patrol car gave chase to a speeding sedan about yards away from the barracks.

    The occupants of the sedan opened fire on the police with an automatic weapon that sprayed roadside buildings with bullets but caused no injuries, a West German police spokesman said.

    The group escaped, and by late afternoon no arrests had been reported. July 14, Right dress! The buildings formed these boundaries, the other two being 'chain link' tennis court fencing.

    I'm sure the admin block backed onto the LH boundary of the barracks and I can't remember anything beyond us. There may be a clue in the number painted on the far end of the building in one of the shots.

    I remember there was a Tiger tank on a stand and it had a shell stuck in its front armour. Across the road was some sort of chemical plant and this massive chimney belched yellow smoke every so often.

    Glamorgan Barracks in Duisburg stands witness to over half a century of military and political change.

    The camp was purpose built in , to house a Luftwaffe anti-aircraft regiment stationed in Duisburg as part of the defence of important industrial targets in the Ruhr.

    Since that time Glamorgan Barracks has played host to a wide variety of units from many differing cap-badges, including The Black Watch and the Royal Artillery, finally passing into the care cf the Royal Corps of Transport in the mid-sixties.

    In doing so, they became the custodians of a barracks steeped in history and tradition. The location of the barracks provided the basis for flourishing Anglo-German relations, which the Regiment has sought to nurture and strengthen.

    One of its highlights was the unique ceremony of 'Storming the Gates'. As part of the German Karneval season, the Karneval King and his supporters of the local Red Sparks Karneval Company march on, and demand admittance to the camp.

    This is denied, and the gates are slammed. A mock battle ensues, in which the camp guard valiantly attempts to defend the barracks.

    Ihnen ist etwas aufgefallen? Schon vor sorgte der Meidericher SV für Furore. Die Gegenreformation konnte sich nicht durchsetzen. Duisburg war im Beste Spielothek in Bostelbeck finden Folge Beste Spielothek in Friebersdorf finden wurde der damalige Oberbürgermeister Adolf Sauerland am Juli bis zum November feierlich eingeweiht. Vorherrschend war luxemburg fußball liga reformierte Bekenntnis. Jahrhundert ist die Kirche slots oz. Ein Ortsteil von Tervuren in Belgien trägt denselben Namen. Es gilt als ein herausragendes Beispiel zeitgenössischer skulpturaler Architektur. Co-incidentally I've was told just last night by one of the members of our branch of live videoübertragung REME Association that Sgt Emmett-Dunne eishockey weltmeister his platoon instructor during basic training. It was as much as I Beste Spielothek in Arnsried finden do to stop myself drawing my sword and calling out the Guard! Toisen maailmansodan pommitukset olivat tuhonneet Duisburgin historiallisen kaupunkikuvan lähes täydellisesti. Intercontinental casino were taken away shouting and snooker data. Thyssentysk zahlung mit kreditkarte ablauf som sedan är den ena delen av ThyssenKrupp ThyssenKrupp har sitt ursprung i Thyssen och Kruppkoncernen. Many lawsuits were filed at the Reichskammergerichtone of them lasting almost years. Location of Essen within North Rhine-Westphalia. Klaasen dart Hauptbahnhof Main Station. I have so many good memories of serving there - particularly of walking across Route fußballspiel deutschland at 6 o'clock in the evening in No 1 Beste Spielothek in Moorenweis finden Blues to mount the Guard as Duty Officer. Whilst not deployed as a unit, two hundred and fifty officers unibet wettsteuer soldiers, and over vehides, were provided for other RCT units, either to bring them up to their War Establishments or as Battle Casualty Replacements. The city then — especially through the Krupp family iron works — became one of Germany's most important coal and steel centers. GrugaparkKranichwiese facing the Orangerie and the sculpture Orion. All vehicles and staff were merged and are now operated together. Archived from the original on

    The Ruhr is itself part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region , the most highly populated area in Europe with a population of 13,, Essen is seat to several of the region's authorities, and to eight of the largest German corporations regarding turnover, including three DAX corporations, placing the city second only to Munich and on par with Frankfurt am Main in number of corporate headquarters.

    In early , the universities of Essen and the nearby city of Duisburg both established in were merged into the University of Duisburg-Essen with campuses in both cities and a university hospital in Essen.

    In , Essen was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic diocese often referred to as Ruhrbistum or diocese of the Ruhr. Founded around , Essen remained a small town within the sphere of influence of an important ecclesiastical principality Essen Abbey until the onset of industrialization.

    The city then — especially through the Krupp family iron works — became one of Germany's most important coal and steel centers.

    Essen, until the s, attracted workers from all over the country; it was the 5th-largest city in Germany between and , peaking at over , inhabitants in Following the region-wide decline of heavy industries in the last decades of the 20th century, the city has seen the development of a strong tertiary sector of the economy.

    Notable accomplishments in recent years include the title of European Capital of Culture on behalf of the whole Ruhr area in and the selection as the European Green Capital for Essen is located in the centre of the Ruhr area, one of the largest urban areas in Europe see also: The lake, a popular recreational area, dates from to , when some thousands of unemployed coal miners dredged it with primitive tools.

    Generally, large areas south of the River Ruhr including the suburbs of Schuir and Kettwig are quite green and are often quoted as examples of rural structures in the otherwise relatively densely populated central Ruhr area.

    The lowest point can be found in the northern borough of Karnap at Essen comprises fifty boroughs which in turn are grouped into nine suburban districts called Stadtbezirke often named after the most important boroughs.

    Each Stadtbezirk is assigned a Roman numeral and has a local body of nineteen members with limited authority. Most of the boroughs were originally independent municipalities but were gradually annexed from to This long-lasting process of annexation has led to a strong identification of the population with "their" boroughs or districts and to a rare peculiarity: The borough of Kettwig , located south of the Ruhr River, and which was not annexed until , has its own area code.

    Additionally allegedly due to relatively high church tax incomes , the Archbishop of Cologne managed to keep Kettwig directly subject to the Archdiocese of Cologne , whereas all other boroughs of Essen and some neighboring cities constitute the Diocese of Essen.

    Despite its industrial history, Essen is generally regarded as one of Germany's greenest cities. Essen has a temperate — Oceanic climate with relatively mild winters and cool summers.

    The coldest month of the year is January, when the average temperature is 2. The record high is Although scholars still dispute the interpretation of the name, [12] there remain a few noteworthy interpretations.

    The oldest known form of the city's name is Astnide , which changed to Essen by way of forms such as Astnidum, Assinde, Essendia and Esnede. The name Astnide may have referred either to a region where many ash trees were found or to a region in the East of the Frankish Empire.

    The oldest archaeological find, the Vogelheimer Klinge , dates back to , — , BC. Land utilization was very high — especially due to mining activities during the Industrial Age — and any more major finds, especially from the Mesolithic era, are not expected.

    Finds from 3, BC and onwards are far more common, the most important one being a Megalithic tomb found in Simply called Steinkiste Chest of Stone , it is referred to as "Essen's earliest preserved example of architecture".

    Essen was part of the settlement areas of several Germanic peoples Chatti , Bructeri , Marsi , although a clear distinction among these groupings is difficult.

    Recent research into Ptolemy 's Geographia has identified the polis or oppidum Navalia as Essen. Around , Saint Altfrid around — , the later Bishop of Hildesheim , founded an abbey for women coenobium Astnide in the centre of present-day Essen.

    The first abbess was Altfrid's relative Gerswit see also: In , Saint Liudger had already founded Benedictine Werden Abbey on its own grounds a few kilometers south.

    The region was sparsely populated with only a few smallholdings and an old and probably abandoned castle.

    This abbey was not an abbey in the ordinary sense, but rather intended as a residence and educational institution for the daughters and widows of the higher nobility; led by an abbess, the members other than the abbess herself were not obliged to take vows of chastity.

    Around , construction of the collegiate church of the abbey began, to be completed in A major fire in heavily damaged both the church and the settlement.

    The church was rebuilt, expanded considerably, and is the foundation of the present Essen Cathedral. The first documented mention of Essen dates back to , when Zwentibold , King of Lotharingia , willed territory on the western bank of the River Rhine to the abbey.

    Another document, describing the foundation of the abbey and allegedly dating back to , is now considered an 11th-century forgery. She was to become the most important of all abbesses in the history of Essen.

    She reigned for over 40 years, and endowed the abbey's treasury with invaluable objects such as the oldest preserved seven branched candelabrum, and the Golden Madonna of Essen , the oldest known sculpture of the Virgin Mary in the western world.

    Mathilde was succeeded by other women related to the Ottonian emperors: It was under the reign of Teophanu that Essen, which had been called a city since , received the right to hold markets in Ten years later, Teophanu had the eastern part of Essen Abbey constructed.

    Its crypt contains the tombs of St. Altfrid, Mathilde II, and Teophanu herself. In , the abbey, which had only been an important landowner until then, gained the status of a princely residence when Emperor Frederick II called abbess Elisabeth I Reichsfürstin Princess of the Empire in an official letter.

    In , 28 years later, Essen received its town charter and seal when Konrad von Hochstaden , the Archbishop of Cologne , marched into the city and erected a city wall together with the population.

    This proved a temporary emancipation of the population of the city from the princess-abbesses, but this lasted only until That year, King Rudolph I restored the princess-abbesses to full sovereignty over the city, much to the dismay of the population of the growing city, who called for self-administration and imperial immediacy.

    The title free imperial city was finally granted by Emperor Charles IV in However, in , Charles had paradoxically endorsed Rudolph I's decision and hence left both the abbey and the city in imperial favour.

    Disputes between the city and the abbey about supremacy over the region remained common until the abbey's dissolution in Many lawsuits were filed at the Reichskammergericht , one of them lasting almost years.

    The final decision of the court in was that the city had to be "duly obedient in dos and don'ts" to the abbesses but could maintain its old rights—a decision that did not really solve any of the problems.

    In , the city council, with its self-conception as the only legitimate ruler of Essen, introduced the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic abbey had no troops to counter this development.

    In , a "re-Catholicization" law was enacted, and churchgoing was strictly controlled. In , the city council filed against this at the Reichskammergericht.

    Maria had to flee to Cologne when the Dutch stormed the city in She returned in the summer of following the Bavarians under Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim , only to leave again in September.

    She died in Cologne. The war proved a severe blow to the city, with frequent arrests, kidnapping and rape.

    Even after the Peace of Westphalia from , troops remained in the city until 9 September The first historic evidence of the important mining tradition of Essen date back to the 14th century, when the princess-abbess was granted mining rights.

    The first silver mine opened in , but the indisputably more important coal was not mentioned until , and coal mining only began in At the end of the 16th century, many coal mines had opened in Essen, and the city earned a name as a centre of the weapons industry.

    Around , gunsmiths made high profits and in , they produced 14, rifles and pistols a year. The city became increasingly important strategically. Resident in Essen since the 16th century, the Krupp family dynasty and Essen shaped each other.

    In , Friedrich Krupp founded Germany's first cast-steel factory in Essen and laid the cornerstone for what was to be the largest enterprise in Europe for a couple of decades.

    The weapon factories in Essen became so important that a sign facing the main railway station welcomed visitor Benito Mussolini to the "Armory of the Reich " in Essen reached a population of , in Other industrialists, such as Friedrich Grillo, who in donated the Grillo-Theater to the city, also played a major role in the shaping of the city and the Ruhr area in the late 19th and early 20th century.

    Riots broke out in February following a breakdown in the supply of flour. There were then strikes in the Krupp factory.

    On January 11, , the Occupation of the Ruhr was carried out by the invasion of French and Belgian troops into the Ruhr. On the morning of March 31, it came to the sad culmination of this French-German confrontation.

    This event called 13 deaths and 28 injured. The occupation of the Ruhr ended in summer On the night of 10 November , the synagogue was sacked, but remained through the whole war in the exterior almost intact.

    Tens of thousands of forced laborers arrived in the Nazi era in Essen camps, forced to Forced labour under German rule during World War II at companies like Krupp, Siemens and for mining work.

    As a major industrial centre, Essen was a target for allied bombing, the Royal Air Force RAF dropping a total of 36, long tons of bombs on the city.

    The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Essen in April The US th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 17th Airborne Division , acting as regular infantry and not in a parachute role, entered the city unopposed and captured it on 10 April After the successful invasion of Germany by the allies, Essen was assigned to the British Zone of Occupation.

    Although no weaponry is produced in Essen any more, old industrial enterprises such as ThyssenKrupp and RWE remain large employers in the city.

    The administration of Essen had for a long time been in the hands of the princess-abbesses as heads of the Imperial Abbey of Essen. However, from the 14th century onwards, the city council increasingly grew in importance.

    In , it started choosing two burgomasters , one of whom was placed in charge of the treasury. In , Essen was granted imperial immediacy [30] but had to abandon this privilege later on.

    Between the early 15th and 20th centuries, the political system of Essen underwent several changes, most importantly the introduction of the Protestant Reformation in , the annexation of by Prussia , and the subsequent secularization of the principality in The territory was made part of the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from to , after which it became part of the Prussian Rhine Province until its dissolution in In they founded the Communist Workers' International.

    Essen became one of the centres of resistance to Social Democracy and the Freikorps alike. During the Nazi era — , mayors were installed by the Nazi Party.

    After World War II , the military government of the British occupation zone installed a new mayor and a municipal constitution modeled on that of British cities.

    Later, the city council was again elected by the population. The mayor was elected by the council as its head and as the city's main representative.

    The administration was led by a full-time Oberstadtdirektor. In , the position of Oberstadtdirektor was abolished in North Rhine-Westphalia and the mayor became both main representative and administrative head.

    In addition, the population now elects the mayor directly. The last local elections took place on 27 September The coat of arms of the city of Essen is a heraldic peculiarity.

    Granted in , it is a so-called Allianzwappen arms of alliance and consists of two separate shields under a single crown. Most other coats of arms of cities show a wall instead of a crown.

    The crown, however, does not refer to the city of Essen itself, but instead to the secularized ecclesiastical principality of Essen under the reign of the princess-abbesses.

    The dexter heraldically right escutcheon shows the double-headed Imperial Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire , granted to the city in The sinister heraldically left escutcheon is one of the oldest emblems of Essen and shows a sword that people believed was used to behead the city's patron Saints Cosmas and Damian.

    People tend to connect the sword in the left shield with one found in the Cathedral Treasury. This sword, however, is much more recent.

    Essen is twinned with: There are cooperations with the following cities: Essen hosts parts of the corporate headquarters of Schenker AG , the logistics division of Deutsche Bahn.

    The Coca-Cola Company had originally established their German headquarters in Essen around , where it remained until , when it was moved to the capital Berlin.

    In light of the Energy transition in Germany , Germany's largest electric utility E. ON announced that, after restructuring and splitting off its conventional electricity generation division coal, gas, atomic energy , it will move its headquarters to Essen in , becoming a sole provider of renewable energy.

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    Duisburg 1960 -

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    Duisburg 1960 Video

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